1.       a)      alpha

b)      positron

2.       a)

b)

3.       a)      15N + 1H à 4He + 12 C; check that atomic numbers balance: 7 + 1 = 2 + 6

b)      12C + 1H à 13N + g

13C + 1H à 14N + g

4.       a)      fission; we are getting smaller nuclei

b)      fusion; we are getting a bigger hydrogen nucleus

5.    a)

b)

c)

d)

6. Compared to chemical changes, nuclear reactions release a lot more energy; they involve changes in the nucleus; they don't always preserve protons or neutrons; they don't conserve mass; and with the exception of X-rays, their electrons and shells don't change.

7.       We had shown on page 68 that for every mole of 2H fused, 1.65 X 109 kJ were released. (This was done by simply by

(1)Multiplying the mass lost per 2H atom by Avogadro’s number = mass lost per reacting mole

(2)Converting to kg

(3)Using E = mc2, and converting J to kJ

Now we’ll use that answer to get the energy released for 28 g.

28g of 2H / 2 g/mole = 14 moles 2H

14 moles 2H (1.65 X 109 kJ/mole) = 2.31 X 1010 kJ